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Braising pans and roasting pans are large, wide and shallow, to provide space to cook a roast. They typically have two loop or tab handles, and may have a cover. Roasters are usually made of heavy gauge metal so that they may be used safely on a cooktop following roasting in an oven. Unlike most other cooking vessels, roasters are usually rectangular or oval. There is no sharp boundary between braisers and roasters – the same pan, with or without a cover, can be used for both functions. In Europe, a clay roaster is still popular because it allows roasting without adding grease or liquids. This helps preserve flavor and nutrients. Having to soak the pot in water for 15 minutes before use is a notable drawback.

Gas Stoves

Gas stoves became more wieldy when the oven was integrated into the base and the size was reduced to better fit in with the rest of the kitchen furniture. By the 1910s, producers started to enamel their gas stoves for easier cleaning. Ignition of the gas was originally by match and this was followed by the more convenient pilot light. This had the disadvantage of continually consuming gas. The oven still needed to be lit by match and accidentally turning on the gas without igniting it could lead to an explosion. To prevent these types of accidents, oven manufacturers developed and installed a safety valve called a flame failure device for gas hobs (cooktops) and ovens. Most modern gas stoves have electronic ignition, automatic timers for the oven and extractor hoods to remove fumes.

Pressure Cookers

Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker. This simulates the effects of long braising within a shorter time. Almost any food that can be cooked in steam or water-based liquids can be cooked in a pressure cooker. The cooker works by trapping the steam produced from boiling the cooking liquid inside the vessel. This causes internal pressure and temperature to rise quickly. After use, the steam is slowly released so that the vessel can be opened safely.